Publication du membre du CRISE
Mishara Brian L.
Mishara, B. L., & Cardinal, C. (2015). Suicide/Self-Harm in I. Pike, S. Richmond, L. Rothman, A. MacPherson (Eds.), Canadian Injury Prevention Resource: An Evidence-Informed Guide to Injury Prevention in Canada , (409-421). Parachute Publishers.
Suicide is a worldwide problem; each year, more than 800,000 people take their own life. In comparison with the global age-standardized suicide rate of 11.4 per 100,000 population per year (15.0 for men and 8.0 for women), Canada’s rate is slightly lower, at 11.0, but higher for men and much lower for women (17.2 for men and 4.9 for women). Overall, suicide rates worldwide have been decreasing over the past 12 years and Canada’s rate has declined 11.1% between 2000 and 2012 (-2.8% for women and -13.5% for men). However, declining suicide rates are not occurring in all countries. For example, during the same period, suicides increased by 24.2% in the United States (+36.6% for women and +19.9% for men). Deaths by suicide, often referred to as “completed suicide”, are generally deﬁned as when a person intentionally kills himself or herself, although the determination of intentionality is sometimes diffcult to ascertain. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) surveys, for each death by suicide, there are more than 20 people who have made one or more suicide attempts. Since having attempted previously is an important risk factor in predicting completed suicides, suicide is often conceptualized along a continuum from “mild ideation” to “serious intentions, attempts and completed suicide”. This chapter limits itself to completed suicides and attempted suicides, and does not include self-harm without the intent to die, such as teenagers with repeated self-cutting without the presence of suicide intent. After presenting data on suicide and suicide attempts in Canada, this chapter brieﬂy summarizes current explanations of suicidal behaviours, and reviews the interventions suggested in the WHO 2014 report on suicide prevention, in terms of the Canadian context.
(Résumé disponible en anglais seulement)
Mise à jour : 10/15/2015